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乐虎国际注册

时间:2020-05-29 02:24:50作者:Mckay

导语:在线领A片【AG88.SHOP】乐虎国际注册You and I 】/mig【ht not【 see a goldmine/ i\n the sewag/e water【 from the city of Brussels, but a tea\m of scienti【sts are hunting for gold and silver here."Al/l the sewage of the city arr】i】ves here and /in th【e/ treatmen/t \process, the】/y 【clean up the water whi【ch i/s disposed to the river b\ack. And all t】he so\lid mater\ia【l which con\tai/ns also a/【ll the/\ metals】 is c\once/ntrated 【in t】\【he slud】ge," explain\s \Dr N\atacha Brion -】 】VUB Scie【ntist.D\r Natacha Brion is c】ollecting sa】mpl\es at a number of sewage s【ites around Brussels/.T】hey're 6 mo】nths into a】 /3 year project. Hunti/ng for tiny nano-par/ticles of gold and silver not visib】le to the naked eye - at /ea/ch stage】 wh/ile/ the sewag\e is processed.Their init【ial findings are that the dried out dark \brown dust cal\led slidge i\s the richest.Th\e material f\alls into the co\n】taine/r, th/is is th【e sludge, th/e mat\erial /that N【atacha and her team ar【e /interested in. It/\ smells\ disgusting.Back in t\he lab w【here three uni】v】ersitie\s ar\e c】ollabo】ra】ting on this pro【ject - they】're working out how to extract 】t\he preci【】ous metal/s."We w】/oul【d like to use nano-materials/ and i【ron oxide【/ nano-particle【s which are magnetic t【o be able to collect se\parately \these 【different ions in 】solutions,"】 Professor Gill】es Bruylan【ts - UL/【/B Scientist.Their initial tests find th\ere's 】aroun/d 1 gram of gold and 5 grams o/f sil/v\er per to/n of\ sludge.They bel/ieve sports\ 】clot【hing or perhaps jewellery during washing and ce】rtain/ medicines are w\here the\ nanop/ar/ticles of gold and silver are】/ coming fro/m."Their】 resour\ce \i/s almost【/ exhau【sted so yo/u【/ don't fi//nd them easily anymore in nature. And/ so now many scientists are t\rying to find al/l poss\ible 【ways o\f recyc\ling these,/" says B【rio【n.And the whole thing i\s also【 about opti/mising sewage proces】sing so treate】d wate/r enter【in【g rivers】 like【 thi\s remains uncontaminated.Shar\e this articleCopy/pa\ste the article video emb【ed link below:Cop【yShar】eTweetSharesendShar/eTwe\etSharesen\dMo【reHi/deShare/SendShareShareShareSendShareShareYou mig【ht also like / / 【 【 】Meet the researcher【s us\in\g se【a tu【rtles 】to learn more about cyclones / 】 \ \ 【 \ European p\【roject Best【Med/Grape i/s /helping winegrow\ers 【transform g/rap】e】 w\aste into cos/metic products 】 / Degraded land begi【ns to bloom thank\s to European compo】【sting project \ \ More a/bo\utResearch】 & DevelopmentResearch\Enviro】nmenta【l prote\ction 【 \Br/owse【 【tod/ay�】39【;s tags
乐虎国际注册Paulino Guajajara,【 a/ member \of【 an indigenous group/ i/n no/rthern\ B/ra【zil, was shot dead in an 】ambush by 】illegal loggers \o】n Frida\y a】ccording to\ /leaders of the Gu【ajajara tribe.T\hey\ said on【 S【atu/rday /that Pauli【no was\ hunting ins\ide the Arariboia res/e\rvat\ion in Ma/ranhao st\ate 】when he was attacked and s】hot in the head.An/other member of his t】ri】be, /Laercio Guajajara, w【as injured【/ \but managed to 】escape.The /clash comes 【ami\d an\ increase in \invasions of res【/ervations by 【il】leg//al loggers since Pre】sident Jair Bol/son【【ar\o t/】ook office. Elected 【this year, the president vowed t\o open up protected】 ind/igenous lands to eco\nomic development.Brazil's pan-indigenous\ organisation, APIB, said Bolson【aro's rhe】to/ri/c】 has en】】coura\ge】d violence \against indigenous \g】roups. "T/he increase/ in violence in i【】ndigenous terri/】to\ries is a】 direct result of his hateful speeches and steps tak】en against our people,"Th【e Guaja\ja】ras set 【up the Guardians of t/he Forest in 2012 to】 patrol the vast reservat\ion 】since they c/oul】dn't rely o【n po/lice to defend them/ from invasions.APIB s\】aid that Paulino's body is still lying in the forest where/】 he/ was 【shot. Police】 h【ave sent a tea】m to investigate the/ 【ci】/rcumsta】】nces of his death】\.Paulin【o spok\e to R【euters ne】ws agency earlier this year an】d s【】aid th】at protectin】g the forest from i【】ntr【uders/ was dangerous but that his pe【【opl【e could not give in t【o fe【ar【【."I'm sca【red at \tim】es】, but we have to 】lift up our heads and act.\ We\ are her】e fighting," he said."We /are protecting our land 【and the lif】e on 】/it,【 the \animal】s, \the birds, even t\he Awa who are here too," Paul】ino Guajajara said【 a/t the time. "There 】is so much destruction o【\f Nature happening, good tr】ees with wood\ as hard/【 as st】eel being cu\t down/ and taken away." "We have 【】to pres【erve 】this life f【or our children'\s future," he 】said.Share this ar/t】icl】eCopy/paste the article 【】video embed /lin\k below:Co【pySh\areTw【eetS】harese】n/dSh】ar【eTweet/Sharesend】/MoreHid】eS/ha【reSendShareShareSh】areSendShareShareYou might also like 【 Oil tanker【 owner denies causing ma【ssive】 spill off Brazi】【l's coast / / / / \ \ 【 Ama/zon chief fight\ing to 【protect rainforest p/【ut fo【rw/ard for Nobel Priz\】e / / 】 / / \ Ind/igenous Braz【ili\【ans protest ag/ainst President B】olsonaro’s land r\eforms/// / More abou/tBr】azilIndigenous peoplesEnvironme】【ntal protectionFore】stsClim【ateHot TopicL/earn more ab【【ou/t Climate Hot T/opi/cLearn more about Climate 】 Browse tod/ay【9;s tagsText sizeAaAaMagda【le\na【 Herrera, director of pho】\tog/raphy at】 G/EO】 magazine, has a 【weal】th of exper【ienc【e in t\【he wor\ld o\/f photography and journalism, an/d a keen eye for an am【\azin\g image. /This made h/e/r id【eally place【d for her a【ppoin/tment as a judge for】\ th【e 2019 Eu\r【op】ean Wildlife Photographer o】f the Y\ear】./The competition, run annually b\y the So】ciety of German Nature Photographers and now\】 in its 19th year, challenges profession\al and no/n【-professional photo【graphers】 alike to 【provide th】e bes/t photograp/hy Europe has to offer/.Herrera too【k/ some time【 to talk t\o us ab】out the com/petition, what to exp】ec/t,【 and how photographers, a【s well as providin\g b\reathta【【kin【g image\s,】 can help drive positive engage\ment w//【ith t\he envir】onment.【Congratu\/lation】s on your ap【po】intment\ to t\he judging pa\nel for the GDT European Nature photographer of t】he Year 2019. How did you beco】me involved wit【h th】】is 【\co\mpe】tition】?&ldqu\o;I t】】hin/k some of the p】hotographers I wo/r/k\ with\ at Geo ha/ve】 s【uggest【ed that I partic】ipa】te. Geo is a magazine that 【is concer】ned with the 【en/vir/onment, nature /a【nd\ wildlife con【serva\tion.&rdquo\;Salvad】or Colvee【, Nebot Der/ Tanz 】D【es Okt【o【pus】W】hy 】do 】yo\u thin/k competitions such/ as this a\re i】mportant?“N】/【a】tu\re a】nd wildlife ph【otography is becoming increasingly po\pular. P【ho【tographers 【are our am/bassador\s an\d our eyes an\d these e】vents allow u】s 【to make the object of t【heir w/o/rk known/ to the widest possible 【au\dience. Tod/ay, it i】s/ important to highligh【t the natural beauty o/f o【ur pl/anet but /also t】/he dang\ers. /It/'s not just about beautifu\l p\ic/【ture】s.”H】ave you seen /many of the entries 】yet? What i/s the standard lik】e so far?“As far as I【 can se】e the standard is high!”Is】 there an【ything in particular you’】r【e hoping to s/ee in this year’s 【entri/es?“I hope /】to see, as wit\h any photo, something that sho/ws com/plexity or tension, behaviour, activity a\nd threat too.&rdqu/o;Is there a cat【egory that you particula\rly appreciat\e or enjoy?“I have to say, I love all of the】m\ \but I am 】part【icularly intere】sted in the 】K7 \one (the one that focuses o】n the beneficial or】 n【\egative rel【ationsh】ip /bet【ween humans /and nature).【Cristobal【 Serran\o, Der PoolWhy do/ you /th【i/nk it is \important 】for the competition to exp【lore this particul【ar topic?“It is important not t【o separate /the animal fro\m the human and to sh/ow th【【is relations】hi】p, which\ can /be de】structive (o\n\ the part of humans). W【e share a p【lanet where everyone must find t【heir 【place.&rdqu【o;To what ex/tent is nature photo\graphy a\ble to re/flect on the【 efforts of c\onservation 】a】nd/or reveal\ what/ more nee【ds to be done?】 Wha/t【 are its limi\ta】tions?“Nature photogr\ap/hy sho/ws us 【an ov【e】rview of the situati【on, s】/ometimes in a very aesthetic form, but in recent【 years/ it has evolved 【into\ a photography t\hat r/evea】ls【 a context \that, 【like any】 documen/tary photography, explores th】e re/lations/hip of the living to a territ//ory. In this se】nse/, it s】trongly【 concerns us all.”/W/ords: Dan【ny \McCanceHeader: Joel Brunet, Ein /Gemaelde d【es LebensShare this artic\le 【 More fr【om placesText sizeAa】AaThere/’s a r/ea\son 】car bodywork is often referred to as ‘coachw【o\r/】k’. It】&rsquo】\;s【 beca】u/se the e\arliest cars /were】 litt【le more th/a\n motor/ised】【 version of h\orse【-drawn\ coach【es with passenger compartments usually made from wooden skeletons clothed in more wood, le【ather or fabric.\ \As car】 design moved】 on, s【o did】 the construction /of /their bo【dies to ste/el and aluminium. Now we are seeing a diversificati/on of /materials used to 】skin 】cars to\ maximise their s\/af//et】y and to ensure they /are lightweigh/t as well as】 s/ustainabl/e.Th\【is heralds a period of developme【nt and innova/tion tha【t hasn&\】rsquo;t been seen since the i/nt】roduction of carbo\n fibr/\e to Formu【la/ 1 racing /ca\rs in 1981.】 Bef【ore that, glassfibre was the \oth/er mo【s\t no】teworthy step fo【\r【ward in mat】eria\ls 【when it became a\ pop【ular choice】 fo\r creati【ng/ /【】comple】x shapes in the 】early 1950s for numerous home-bu\il\d specials.Related | Flying/ cars:\ ho】w close are we?Li/gh【twei】【ght \carbon fibreTo】day, the d】\eve】lopment of】 n\ew m【ate\rials is being undert【ak】en in a more structured and scienti\fic man\ner./ This 【i【s cle\ar f【rom 】the approach be【ing tak/en 【to creati/ng \car【【bon fibr】e that’s cheaper and eas【ier to】 produce. Lightweig【ht carbo】n】【 fibre is/ idea【l for man【y】 exterio/r car bod\y par【ts as it can/ be mou\lded into【 multi-contoured shapes easil【y w/hile】 remaining very strong to resist the k【nocks and bump【】s that car【s\ have to endure in normal life.Reducing the cost of maki\ng carb【on fibre also addresses one \of the drawbacks【 of this】 material in the past: 【th】e cost of repairing or repl】acing【 it. For example, fixing\ Ro/w】an Atk\inson】’s McL\aren F1 with \all of its carbon fibre part【s 】is thou/g【ht【 to h】av\e been the largest ever vehicle】 insurance pay-out in UK his\】tory at &po/und;910,000.Wonder/ material from【 recycled c】lo\thi【ng 【Voir\ cett【e public】ation】 sur Instagram】U/ne publication partagée par Faraday Fut\ure \(@fa】radayfutu\re) le 27 /\Juin 2018 &/ag【【rav\/e; 11 :27 PDTToday, we find carbon\ 【fibre in u\se a】cross many\ mainstream cars,/ tho\ugh/ it tends to【 b\e us/ed in str\ategic areas whe\re\ stren】gth and lightweight materi/als【 ar【e cr【uci【al. Using【【 carbon fibre /more widely】 /lowers m/anufacturing costs, which 【is why comp【anies li/ke Fara【da\y F\uture based 【in California, USA are【 wo\r/k】ing on ma/\king th】is wonder m\ater】ial from recycled clothing. By bre\aking th】e materials down\ to t【heir】 /molecular\ 】leve/l】, it&r】squo;s possible to re-\engin/e】er them in】to carbon f】ibr/e.Related |If you c/ou/ld】 fly cl\eanly, would you?R】odrigo Caula/, a \material designer at Faraday, e/xplai【n/s: "【It sou】nds like science fiction\, but it’s happ/】ening now. We can extrude \entirely new bi】o-based fibr/es with special equipment and re-engineer the molecu\lar properti\es of \the sour【ce material \dur/i【ng this proce\ss. /You\ co【uld technic\ally design a fibre to be h\ydrophobic, fire【 retardant or /biodegradable\ – it’s almost alch】】【emy.】"Howeve\r, in/dustry】 anal//ysts 】reckon the average car wil】l only have a 15% carb【/o【n fibr\e content by 2040. The majorit/y \o\f the \】\remaining material w/【ill remain steel, but much of this w】ill be mor】e speciali/sed versions of\ st/eel such as //Ult/ra High】 Strength Steel and boron steel fo【r】 key co/mponents. That’s good for the rig】idity /of/ 【the car and its /c/rash-worth】ines/s, but the more specialised the ste\el, the /more difficult /it becomes 【to recycle.】So, for bodywork, composite materials lik\e carbon fibre rem\ain 【the key to th\e future. While carb【on fibre is \becoming \mo】\r\/e a/fforda【ble and easier to make, there are other co\mposites being develo】ped. Plastic is one of the 【key】s to this【, even if it\ hasn’t had th/e be】st reput/ation d】ue to 】its【 environme】】ntal impact.Rela】ted |Zooming in o/n the future of electric mo【torcyc/lesInte【/rior panels mad】e with p/las\tic w【aste found in the /oceansFaurecia car interiorFaurecia carsFor vehicle use,【 plas\tics are now being develop【ed from the same material that has been t【aken from /wa】ste sources, e\it【her from\ recycled packaging or even extracted from the se】a. BMW has been l/eadi\ng th】e wa【y in this field and its i3 already /has 【interior panels made【 from/ \c/apt【ured plastic waste from the oceans.Exterior body pane//ls a】re also】 being m【ad/e fro/m/ 】/plastic that i/nclu【des 20% hemp fibre. Automotive supplier Faurec/ia 【ha/s been de/】【velopi】ng this f【or so【me time and has/ created a process that allows the plastic t【o be in\jectio】n \moulded so it can form difficult curves while al】so being lighter【 than m\o/st o\ther formed pla/stic panels【.As well as\【 this sort of innovation, more traditional materials are als】o making a co\/meback f】or car bod\ywo\rk.\ A pr】【ime e/xa\mple of this is wood, 】\but not/\/ th】e sort of plank【s a/n\d varnished t】imbers 【of】 old. Instead, wood pulp【 \is bei\ng developed by Toyota becau\se /the finis】h/ed produ/ct/ 【is f\iv/e times stronger than steel yet 80% lighter. This【 has big ramificatio/ns\ as th【e wo】rld moves more toward【s】 electric vehicles with t【heir h\eavy ba【ttery pa\cks w/here wood pulp can help /\offset this \bulk.Aluminium 】is\ another trad【i/tional \mat/erial /that is far from the end of its development fo【r vehicle bo/dy【 panels. Traditionally used f/or lightweight \sports cars, aluminium is now more widely\ used as\ it off【e\r【s】 the same strength as【 s】t】eel for 】much/ /less weight【. That&rs】qu【o;s 【【ideal f\or exterior pa【nels and a【】lum/【inium is al】so easier to/ \work with when 】prod】/ucing panels i\n \bulk quan】titi【es.Re/lated | Meet the leather maker w\ith th\e lowest carbon footprint in the worldL【ooking around all/ of the /major motor shows in recent times, it&rsquo\;s obvi】ous tha【】t car \】make】r【s 【are diversifying their b/ody panel materi【als. For some, environmental im【pact is t\he prime fa【ctor】, but for/ others it】 offe\【rs the chance to pick fr/om a greater choice of materi/als to suit very specific pa【rts【 of a car&\rsquo;s exterior, which almost completes the circle back to the origi】ns of coachbuilding.Words: Al】isda【ir \Su【ttieShare this ar\ticle 】 \ More from life

How technolog/y i\s infl\uen【cing th】\e future of food and housing - whilst res】pecting/ the envi\ronment

【Coron【【/avirus in Europe:】 W【h】/y has Portu【gal not been as ba】dly hit by /COVID-19 a\s n\e/ighbour【 S\pai【n?Text 】s/izeAaAaAfter more tha\n a week of \protests a】round London,【 the cap/ital&rsq【/uo;s】 police force has rescinded its permissions f/or \E/x【tinction Rebel/lio/n to /pro/te\st in the UK cap/i【tal.Re/bels had pr【evio\usly /been campin/g a【t locations around Lon【don, wi】th\ a base camp\ established under the Nels/on’s C】olumn in Trafalgar S【qu/are.Traffic a/round Trafalgar Square was rerout/ed l】ast week af】ter p/\rotestors took t\o the streets,】 bl【ocking roads in a bid to ra【ise aw/a/r/eness on cli】mate change. They were calling on th/ose in pow】e/r to ta【ke immedia\te climate action, i/ncl/uding expeditin\g the【 process of beco【ming car\bon neutral.The\ Metropolitan Po【lice c/【/ited 【the 1,445 arrests】 it had made - including that of 】a 75 y/】\ear old - alongside prote/sts disru\p【/tin/g tra\vel and\ busines\s in the 】City of Lond/on 【as reasons for cl\amping down on 】the protest.“These conditions hav【e been imposed 】/due】 】t【o th】e continue/d breaches o\f the s\ection 14 【condition previ/ously imp【lemented, and ongoing serious \disruption to the community,&rdq/uo; Depu【ty【 \/Assi/stant Commissioner Laur/ence Taylor said i/n the announ\cement.&/ldquo;】We h】ave made【 s//ignific\ant progress in\ managing】 】Ext/inc】ti\on R/ebellion’s activity/】 at sites across【 central London over this】 past\ week. Officers have b\eg\un the process of clearing Trafalga/r Square a/nd getting things back to normal,” he added.Extinction Rebellion co/nfirme/d/ it would relinquish Traf/alga【r /Square to authorities but in a 【statem】ent said:】 “The Internationa】l Rebell】ion conti【n/ues.”&ldqu】o;Th【e Cli\m】ate and Ecological Emergency isn&rsq\uo;t going away and we rema【in【 re/solut【e in f\acing i\t】,&rdq/uo; th\e statement contin/ues.&ldq\【uo】;We /urge the Gover/nment an/d the authorities to join us in doing the same. We【/ /cann】ot do it】 alone.”Howe】ver】, \in a Tweet, the activism gr】o【up admitted it broke the law &\ldquo【;\【in careful &】 deliberate way\s, fully un\derstanding \the\ /conse/quences of action b】eing tak】en”.It wen】【t on\: &/ldquo;/】Today,【 an unprece【dente】d, poli【tical\, de\cisio\n has been taken t【o shu/t down pe\ac/efu\l prote/st \call【ing out t/he gover\n/ment fo\r inaction in the f\ace of cris/is./&rdq【uo;Reactions in the T/witterverseMany of those pr【otesting took to socia\l media\ 【to\ highlight their fury at the decision to end the protest a w/eek early.Share this article 】 More from places,见下图

Deep sea explorer Jean-Michel Cousteau 【teaches UAE childr\en abou\/t \ocean c/o】nse\rva/tion“Time is running o/ut”, stres\sed Carolina Schmidt, Chi】l\e’s Environ【men\t and Climate Minister, /in a /】video 【ad\dress before 2019&】rsquo;s Cl】/imate Conference COP25 la\st Decembe【r. &ldqu【o;There can【n【ot be 】an effe/ctive】 global res\ponse/ to clima\te cha\nge withou\t a global response o】n\ ocean/ i/ssues,&rdquo/; she added.】 Ocean issues range widely, fr【om sea【-level rise a\nd lo【ss【【 of 】oxygen, to incr】eas/ed water temperatures and ch【anges thr/ou/ghout e】cosys【te】m【s. The Inte【rgovernmental 】Pane\l 】for /Cl/imate Chan【ge&rsquo/;s (IPCC) sp【ecial report on the s\tate// of the oc】ean\s f/eatures worrying future t\rends, while last 】year\, the heat in the oceans saw the highest value/ /ev】er recorded.Ocean aci】di【f\ica】tion 【u【ndermines the integrity of m【arine ecosystemsOcean a\cidifi【c】atio】n is the phenomenon in wh【ich o/ceans are becoming】 mo/re/ acidic, as they /conti【nu】e to a【bsorb more and 】more of carbo】/n in the atmosphere/, which is【 increasing due \to h】uman-produce】d emissions. In the】 last 200 years, about 30 percent【 of those\ total emissions have\ been gu】lped by\ the ocean, and 】today, sea wat/ers st\ill/ take in a【bout 25【 percent annually.Ocean acidification occurs when seawater rea【cts/ 】w】i【th the CO2 it ab【\sorb【s from t/he 】/atmosphe/【re, prod】ucing// 【more acidity-【inducin】g chemicals while redu【ci/ng important 】minerals - such as calcium c【\arbonate - that marine organisms rely on to /survive】.The oceans’ average s】urface ac/idity, ra【ther stable over millions of years, h\as increased by about 26 percent i】n the last 150 years. “It】 【was a very slow rise unt/il the 1950s, but】 from /then on\wards, acidif】icatio/n gained spee】d,&r】dquo【; sa\ys Dr. J【ean-Pierr/e Gat【/tu\so, researc】\h di】r\ector at the Laboratoire d'Oc&eacut\e;a【n/ographie de Villefranch】\e, CNRS and 【the】 Univ【ersity】】 of Sorbonne. “Since man-m】ade CO2\ emiss【/ions are【 the/ main cause of /\acidification, fut】ure proj】ections depend on their 】levels. In a bus/】【ines】s-】as-usual si】tuation, ocea【n acidification c】ould /i/ncrease by anoth】【er 150 percent by 】2100,” a\dds\/ \Dr. Gattuso.With 9 perc/ent of th】e ne\ar-surface ocean affe】cted by fa】lling p】H, aci\】dification eff】e\cts are incre/asing】ly felt globally,】 across【 a wide range of marine \ec】osystems. “The worl\/d seems to be/ ob【\sessing ab【out what is happening on land【【 and in the atmosphere, no【t realis【ing that li\fe on Ea/rth is wholly a 【s】ubsid】ia/ry of t】/he ocean, that 【a【ccounts for 98 【pe】rcent o/f species on the planet,” says Dr. 】Dan 【Laffoley, M/arine【 Vi/c\/e 【Chair 【on IU【CN&【rsquo;s Wor【ld/ Commission o/n Protecte【d Areas and【 Senior Advisor \Marine Science and Conse\rvation 【for its Global】 Marine and Polar Progr\amme. &ld【quo;What was/ predict\e】d [about acidification] back i\n 2004 as\ something we needed n【ot\ to w\orry abo\u/t until 2050 or 207Finance going green 【is happening now.&rdqu】/o;Cutti/ng /the water&/rsquo;s amount of carbo/nate i【ons】 robs a w【ide range of /mari】ne animals of the vita】l material t/hey n/eed t】o 【build protective shells. Mussels, pla\nkton, or\ reef \c】or】als are /some o】f the main sp\ecie/s u【/nder】 threat, multiple s【tudies show./Tropical 【coral reef\ ecosy】stems oc/cupy less t】han\ 0.1 per【ce/nt\ of the o【cea【n floor, but between on\e and/】 9 millio/n species live in and around them. As scientist/s p/\redict 】that calcium car\bonate 】】will drop by the end of【 t/h/e cen【tury, halv【ing its pre-industria\l con/centration across the tropics, /scientists a】re wo】rried that 【corals m\igh【t switch from building to dissol\vi/ng mode. While they might not shr】ink, oc/ea【n ac】idification a】lone 【might lower 】the densit【y of their s\kel】etons, by as much a\s 20 percent by 20. Aci/dific【ati】on weakens/ reef\s facing furth\er /p\ressures from b\leaching-\inducing heatwaves, \as well as economic act】iv/ities\. “We are/ w\eake】ning their repair mechanisms,&rdquo】; says】 D/r. Laff【ol\】e/y. \In【 the ne/xt 20 years, scientists s\ay that】 coral reefs /are lik【ely to degrade f】ast, chall\/enging the l\ivel/iho\o\ds of 0 million people depending \on th】em for food, coastal prote\ction and income.Acidification al/s【o affects deep-water corals\ – such 【as those in the North Atlantic &ndas】h; whi【ch are biodiversity hotspots, critical hab\itats for thou】sands of species,\ \including commercial ones, s】u\ch as shrimps, lobsters, cr\abs, groupers,/ and snappers. “Their skeletons are being eroded /in】】 the same manner as o\steop】or/os\is is weakeni【ng ou/r b\ones/【,” says Dr. Laffoley.A phe】nom/enon not yet\ \fully under】stoo\d\“There are observations of ho\w ocean acidificat【ion【 im\p/ac/ts certai/n species,\】” says/ Dr【. Helen Fi【/ndlay, biol【ogical o【ceanographer at the【 Plymouth Marine La【boratory (PML),\ which uses Copernicus Climate Cha【nge Servi【ce (C3S) data and 【infras\tru/cture to estim】ate the \ocean\】’s pa/st and fut\ure aci【d【ity. These impacts are m\ore often 【asso\ciated with ocean regions where 【deep waters &ndas】h; which 】naturally t/end to be more acidic &nda/sh; r/is/e to the surfac/e, boosting acidificati【on regionally, explains Dr./ \】F【i/ndlay. For instance, acidic w【at/ers d\ama\ge o【r d】【isso/lve the shells\ of plankt/onic 【sea snails, important feed for fish such as salmon.But /【s\tudies have show\n spec/ies can respond in mixed w】ays. Some might benefit from acidification, as well as f【rom ocean 】warming, and /inc【reasingly p/redate other sp【ecies,\ IP\CC experts cla/im. Across ecosystems, microscopic marine algae – 【or ph\ytoplankt/on, the b/asic feed /o】f many 【marine food webs/ &ndash】;【 【m/ig】\h】t suf\fer or flo】urish in more 【acidic seawater. Satellite 【data on ocean co【l【o】ur from the Copernicus Marine Se【rv【ice can provide【\ a closer look a\t the oc\ea/n&】rsquo;s 】C/O】2 uptake and how the marine food】 chain mig/h\t react.“Th】e Copernicus Cli/ma【te/ /Change (C3S) Marine, Coastal a/n/d Fisher】ies (MCF【) Sectorial Information System (SIS) project has【】 produced\ a series o】f marine envir】o\n】ment clim\/ate imp/\act/ indicators\, including several \re/lev\an【t to ocean ac\idification, a【long with a number of too【ls that demo【nstr/ate how th\e indicators can be used in marine applications,&rdq【uo; 】says Dr. James Clark, s】enior scientist at】 PML/【. “A majo【r goal of the project is /to produce a 【set of products that su\ppo\rt Eu\ropean climate change【【 adaptation str\ategie】s and mitigati【【on policies. Indica【tors from the CS-MCF project are being incorporated in【to the C】3S /C】limate Data【 S】tore, and a】re expected to 】g【o /live in the next few wee】ks.&】r【dq/uo;/Impac\ts on /biod/iversityEffects of the 】same】 phenomenon may take different faces across r【egion【s/. Throu/g【/h the mid-2000s, the U.S.&】r【squo;s Pacific Northwest began seeing dramatic】 oyster d/ie-o/f】fs in【 hatcheri【es, as th【\e larvae were affec】te【d by acid/】ifie【【d waters; the vital 【coastal shellfish/ industry was h/i/t\ 】hard. In Canada, scientists e/xpe】ct acidification\ on the Pacific c【oast to 】/give way to increasingly toxic algae】, compromisi\ng shel【lfish, and a】ffect\ing even fish, seabirds and marin【e mammals. 】They also anticip\ate one species of fish-killing a/lgae might wi/n more territo/ry in mo/re】 acidi\c wate/rs, threatening loc【al salmon aquaculture】.In Eur】ope, big mollusc producers】 on the A【tlantic 】】coasts】/ like Fran/ce, Italy, Spain, and the UK are 】expected t/\o 】suffer the most【 from acid】ifica】tion impacts by the 】end】 of t\he century. Data from \t\he Co【pern/icus Marine Se/\rvice, which recently includ\【ed sea】water】 pH am】【o\ng its】 ocean m/onit/ori\ng indicators】, is/ used】 by res【/ear\chers【 to gain a better under\stan/ding 】of how acidifi】cation evo【lves in 】European waters./Acidification effects in/ the A【r】ctic also worry scientists, some predicting that its \【waters wil\l lose its /shell-building ch\em】\icals by t】he 20/80s. Still, there are o】nly spotty measurements of oce】an【 acidification i】n the A\rctic, points o\ut Dr. Gattuso, due to its hars\】h rese/ar\ch condit/io【ns. \&/ldquo;W\/hat we do know】 is that /Ar【ctic wate/rs are natu\/rall/y mo【re【 a【/cidic – as CO2, li/ke \all gases, dissolves much faster in cold \water. We worry【 that in about 10 percen/t of the\/ A【/rctic’s o/cean s】urface, the 】pH is so low tha/t the \water is b】ecoming corrosive to organisms/ with shells,” says D/r. Gatt\us【o.Changes 【in ocean physics\ and chemistry a\nd impacts o】n organisms and ec/osystem service\】s according to /str/ingent 【(R【CP2.6/)/ an\d/ high bu【sines】s-as-usual 】(RC【/P8.5) CO2 emissions scena】rios.Source: Scie/nce Mag】 “The prob\lem【 is we are really asking for trouble by changing\ t\】he fu】nction\ality of the ocean,&r】dquo; says Dr. Laffoley, who highlights that 【th】e mix of acidificatio\n,\ ocean wa/r/ming an】d lo/ss o】f /oxyge【/n i\n the water】 is weake【ni】ng t【he overall system, with poorly u】nder【sto】od consequences. “The scale and the /amount【 of carbon a\nd h】eat going into the\ ocean is j】ust truly j】aw-dropp/ing. It&rsqu/o;s a\ proble【m that we 【are】 rather storing up than r】esolving it./” Reversing acidif】ication i/mpac/ts on ecosyst/ems?【“We have already\ commit】ted 【to ocea】n a【/c】idif\ication to its current levels and beyond【, through the amounts of】 CO2 emi/\tted,\” says Dr. 】Fin/dl】ay.】 &ldqu】o;T\he onl\y certain approach is mitigatin\g CO2 e【missions,\&rd【qu】o; say】s Dr. Gattuso. “It w\ill take\ a long time to go back to【 the preindustri\al stat/e, but we can /stop oce【an acidification./”Scie【【nce\ i【s exploring solut【【i【ons, but their 【effects on\ e【cosyst\ems and oce\an pr\oce\sses are not yet fully unders\tood. \Some oc\ean-based 【climate change fixes don/&rsq\uo;t t/arget directly oc\ean acidifi【】cation, while】 others might not be very efficient at\ lockin/g away the carbon. However, 【“more researc】h is being done 】to investiga\te ho】w 】we can use macro\algae, sea-grass b】eds, man】gr/oves, et】\c to st【/ore c】arb】on and also to lo【cally/ ease ocea\n acidi【fica/tion,” says Dr. Findlay\.Adapting fisheries to ease t/he pr【e/ssures o/n ecosystems 【may also provide a way to live with ocean acidification. For\ exampl【【e, 】C3S and PML are com\【】bining wh【at mod\el【s/ say abou【t potential ef\fects of 】c】【limate change on Europe/an s【eas with 】speci/es inf\ormation /to f\oresee how fish s/\toc】ks mig】ht /change/ and【/ how ind/【ustri\es and people depending\ on fisheri】es need to ada】pt./ /“The C3S data will】 be/ used to identify /areas of opportunity【, such as】【 increases in number\s of some fish species\, a【s we/ll as risks, such as dec/lining fish stocks\,&\rd】quo; says Dr. Clark.\ &】ldquo;As/ a\ \result, the sector will be able to mitigate the effects of climate change 【by p/lan【ning sustainable fi/shing practices./&/】rd【quo;Identifying which pa/rts o】f the【 oce】an need u【rgent conserv】ation cou\ld】 al【so help ecosystems mit】igate aci【dification. Experts have been map/ping c/ritical marine ecos】ystems to spot\ where protected\ areas should be /created or \exte\n/ded. &l/dquo;We can h/ave /places【 【where we take th】at\ pressure off, so we give/ areas of the oceans the be【st\ h】ope 【of ri\din【\g\ out the cha【llen\ges that they face \while we go ab/out reducing CO2 emissions,” s【ays \D】【r. La\ffoley.Share this /articleShareTw\/ee/tShares\endSha/reTweetShar/esendMore/Hide\ShareSendSh】areShare】ShareSendShareSha/reMo】re aboutGloba】l 【warming and climate\ changeOceanEcosystemEnvironmental prot\ecti/onP\artne【r: Copernicus 【 【\ Most 】viewed \ / / / What】 influence on climat【e// is the coronav\ir\us lockdow\n really havin】g? 】 \ The n\】\ew 【【AI system safeguarding prem】ature\ \ba/bies from infection 【 / 】 / 】 \ Messenger RN【A: the mo【lecule that may teach ou【r bodies to b】eat canc\er \ \A/p【ple and Google say/ they'll 】work tog【ether to t\race spread of coronavirus via smart/p】hones \ 】 【 \ How EU funding is chang【ing \the face o】f Latvian innovation \ Browse toda\y�【39;s/ tags【/Spar】kle look\s to a gre///ener futu\r\e with the op\ening of its fourth data centre in GreeceAnimal conserva【tion "a gove】rnment priority" says U】nited Arab EmiratesThe 【import/ance of res】【toring mar\ine biodiversity° vid/eo:\ how B/elgium i【s trainin】g \the fishermen of tomorrow。乐虎国际注册

Tradition and innov】ation in car b【odywork\Push to /restore one of 【Europe's/ o\ldest RiversRobinson Crusoe isl\and sets example】 fo】】r/ 】the world in con\ser/vationGood c/hemis/【try: helping busine】/ss to come w】ithin REACH rulesText sizeAaA\a&/ldquo;/It’s \unfa【ir t\o say they are jumping 】on t】he ba/n/dw/\agon, 】natur【e documentaries have always \been motivate\d by conse\rvation.” 【Sa【t in his office at University Col】le/ge L/ondon, lec】ture【r in/ sci/ence communication, Dr Jean-Baptiste Gouyon\/ expla】ins to /me \how nature documentaries/ have come \full circle by\ embracing th\【eir roots in envi/ronmentalism.【 In the early days of TV【, he reveals, f\ilms a\bout/ animals\ helped】 to estab【lish th\is brand new medium【 as 【/a source】 of trustworthy informa/tio/n. Docum】enting and catalo【】guing biodiversi】t\y, they told 【timeless stories of 】creatures no\/t s【o dissimilar to u/s.“Befo【\re \Attenborough was Atten/borough, it w/as common to see scientists 【at work,” Gouy/on says, but things began t\o change】/ as the \century wore on. With the i】nc】\reasing doom and gloom of environmen/tal cris/is loo【min【g ov\er the general 【population, film【makers rejec【ted 】stories abou【t wh\at was】 reall】y h\appenin】g to 【th/e pla【net. “\The【re 】was a documented reluctanc【e to eng【age with envi【ronmental is】sues, they d】idn&rsqu\o;/t】 wa\nt to push audiences 】away.”D】avid Attenbo【rough \makes a spee】ch /at /a cerem】on】y f/or \t/he\ naming of the RRS Sir 【D】avid Atte【nboro\ughAsadour Guzelian/ASSO【CIATED 【PRES【\/SAsadour GuzelianDuring the【 1990s, however, things began to change. “A s【hift in the cultural context has happe】ned and t】here is more acceptance \that 【we are in a bad sit\uation.” Having been bombarded with years of ongoing【 catastrophe, pe/o/ple had becom【e too w//】ell informed to keep tolerating a\【 w】a】te\red-down /version of【 the t【ruth. It has beco/me imposs】ible to ignore /he】/ says, “the state of【 the】 \plane/t i【s wh/at /it i【s.&【rdquo;Now 】we&rs】【qu\o】;re hooked. 14.1 million people watched\ the BBC&/rsquo;s【 27 series, Blue Planet II mak\ing it the】 most-watch【ed 】T\V prog】\ramme in Britain that 】year, /a\ccordin\g to the BBC. Natural history】 persona】/\li】ties lik\e David Attenborough have 】bec/ome big 【stars, successfully\ transf】/orming from amateur ecologists to/ folk hero【es for those p】lagued by eco-anxiety. We have beg\un to recognis【\e the p【ower of /t\he e】nvironme/nt/al film and\ its potential make us \think a lot harder a/bout t/ackling proble/ms lik【e plasti】c pollution.Waste from wors】h【i//p: solvin\g Indi\a's unique river pollution p】【roblemWATCH | Shrink【ing pelican b/reeding grounds restored after BP\ 【oil spillSerbia will plant 1 billion tre】e\s\ in【 o【rder to reach net zero t\ar\get by 205【】0The 】power of movi/ng pictu【res“There is no doubt that film as a mediu】m has massive power to elicit/ an emotional rea\ct/ion,】&rdq】uo; says\ Gouyon\, “but there isn’t 】really any】 hard evidence to/ prove this yet.&r】dquo【; More s/o than the\ writt】en w【ord, these documentaries 】seem to pique our interest/ in the\ p/lanet and poten】\ti/ally even d】rive/ 】us to take action. A sur/\vey of U】K superm/arket/ shoppers found th【at 88】 per】ce\//nt o【f people【 who watc】hed Blue Plan】et II\ had \changed their behaviour \as a resul【t.After watching th\e \series\, Da\río Fern&aa\cute;ndez-Bellona, a postdoctoral rese【archer at Univers】ity College 】Cork, noticed th【at th/e programme w】as consistent/ly \tr\ending on twitte/r the evening】 it aire】d. He started to wonder just how much these\ 】docum【entaries are able to affect our behavio\ur. Using 3000A\ctivists【 are】 raising funds to save Danish wooden 】【boat】s twee\ts and figu】res for v//isit/s to the Wiki/pedia 】pages 】of the animals f/eatured in【 the series, he a/nalysed this data to see what, i/f any\, /patter\ns of behav】iour were influenced by watching the show.His rese\】arc【h fo\und /that 【just 6 percent 【of th\e actual programme 【wa【s about envir【onmental issues a】nd/ a m/【er\e 1 【percent of tweets me/ntioned these t\o】pics.【 T\hese figur【e/s/ didn&rs/quo;t/ look promisi\n】g. Docu】mentar】i】es clearly a\ren/&rs】quo】;t/ usel/ess for conservation, howe/ver, as they \al\ter ou【r perception of wi\ldl【if】e in other 【ways. The Wikipedia pages for each of the【\ animals that appe\ared 】\in episodes of Blue Plane/t【 2 had an annual spike】 【/in visits imm【ediat【ely f】】ollowing the【 broadcast of/ the s【how. Ev\e/n this s/mall connection with nature could be enough to create 【an awa/ren/ess crucial to avoiding /【an exti/nction.One of the mos\t successful elem\en/ts of the moder\n nature】 docume/ntary is t\he &ld//quo;ma【king-of&r【dquo; segment. Usually a short section】】 s【eparate【 from the main show t】h\at reveals how/【 s【ome】 of the scenes we】】re shot, the “making-】of&】rdq【uo;\ le【ts us s【ee behind】 the \scenes【.【】 It a\lso helps to break dow/n the】【 i\nvisib【le wall bet/ween the viewer and t】h/e animal】s. “Films show /nat\ure with】out \humans,/ not \as somethi】ng t/o en】gag】e with,【&】rdquo; explains Dr Gouy】on, “【the cameraman can be a role model for ordinary people \and express more emot【ional responses.” It h/elps the audien/ce】, /usu】ally tuc】/ked a/way in their living room in increasing\ly u\rban\ised societies, to engage w\ith a world they hav/e bec】ome】 distant from.D/ocumenting the fut】u/】reEngagem【ent is un【do\u【\btedly the best /way to get us to\ care\ more ab/out the state of the planet. I【f we】/ want】 t\o mak【e film\s mor\e effective in the future, Gouyo】n 【【【s【ugges】ts, we nee/【d to encourage that en\gagement by giving the came【ras to local populations to document their own experience/s. &ld/q】uo;We can’t go by the impe】rialist model of Brito/n’s going\ and watching 】wil\dlife.”Portrayals of enviro】nmental i【ssu【/es can have【 different\ effect\s in diff\erent countr【ies.\UnsplashWe /respond 】far b/etter, \it seems, to films about environm【【ental issues that resonate /with our own \life \experie\n】ce\. \A good exa】/mple of this/ is】 the international re/sponse to the d【ocumentary T/he Co\ve.】 The 2009 Oscar Award/-win/ning piece about do\lphin hunting/ 】in Taiji, Japan cause【d indign/【ant outrag\e amon】g west】ern audien】ces. Its thriller-style tr/e【atment of ‘uncove/ring&【rsquo; the practice using spy-cams didn&/rsquo;t/, however, go down we】ll \with/ audiences in t/he \co/\untr【y【 wh】ere\ it was shot an【d many show【ings/ were met with protests.This k【ind of document/ary c/l/early raises a】wareness but\, with\i\n the communities a】ble to acti\vel/y change pr【actices har\mful to the en/vir\onment it rarely has the same impa】ct. Despite /already 】】having risen to astronomical levels o\f popularit】y, there【 is still a lot of scope for t】h\ese programm】es to do more 【fo/】r conservation. Choos【ing to cha】mpion l\oca/l voices co/uld spell the end for popular ec【o-h/eroes like David Attenborough, but it m【ight【 just 【be the kind of convincing many peop\l/e n【eed to take action on cl/i【ma【te change.Share th/\is article M\ore /from l】ife。乐虎国际注册

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